Jhanwar, J.C. (2011) Theory and Practice of Air-Deck Blasting in Mines and Surface Excavations: A Review. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering , 29 (5). pp. 651-663. ISSN 0960-3182

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The mechanism by which the explosive energy is transferred to the surrounding rock mass is changed in air-deck blasting. It allows the explosive energy to act repeatedly in pulses on the surrounding rock mass rather than instantly as in the case of concentrated charge blasting. The air-deck acts as a regulator, which first stores energy and then releases it in separate pulses. The release of explosion products in the air gap causes a decrease in the initial bore hole pressure and allows oscillations of shock waves in the air gap. The performance of an air-deck blast is basically derived from the expansion of gaseous products and subsequent multiple interactions between shock waves within an air column, shock waves and stemming base and shock waves and hole bottom. This phenomenon causes repeated loading on the surrounding rock mass by secondary shock fronts for a prolonged period. The length of air column and the rock mass structure are critical to the ultimate results. Several attempts have been made in the past to study the mechanism of air-deck blasting and to investigate its effects on blast performance but a clear understanding of the underlying mechanism and the physical processes to explain its actual effects is yet to emerge. In the absence of any theoretical basis, the air-deck blast designs are invariably carried out by the rules of thumb. The field trials of this technique in different blast environments have demonstrated its effectiveness in routine production blasting, pre-splitting and controlling over break and ground vibrations etc. The air-deck length appropriate to the different rock masses and applications need to be defined more explicitly. It generally ranges between 0.10 and 0.30 times the original charge length. Mid column air-deck is preferred over the top and bottom air-decks. Top air-deck is used especially in situations, which require adequate breakage in the stemming region. The influence of air-deck location within the hole on blast performance also requires further studies. This paper reviews the status of knowledge on the theory and practice of air-deck blasting in mines and surface excavations and brings out the areas for further investigation in this technique of blasting.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Air-deck blasting � Conventional blasting � Open-pit mine � Shock wave � Air-deck length � Original charge length � Fragmentation
Subjects: Blasting
Depositing User: Dr. Satyendra Kumar Singh
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2012 12:52
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2012 12:52
URI: http://cimfr.csircentral.net/id/eprint/951

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